My young friend Corinne asked me to include this section. She went to work in product development after getting her PhD. On her first day she wondered, "I'm building the product - what do we need all these other people for?" Fair question. There is a lot of care and feeding that goes into development, sales and support of a product or service.
Let's look at manufacturing firms and consulting firms and see what kind of roles there are. Certain roles are common to all organizations: I'll call those Administration and Overhead.
Feel free to add comments about other kinds of companies you are familiar with.