OK, we've looked at what you need to have in place to start applying for jobs. What follows below is a four-year plan for getting all that stuff. If you are a undergraduate, I think you can translate this pretty easily into the stages of your college career. And it doesn't matter if you are already a sophomore or junior - you can catch up.
For grad students and post-docs, you'll have to be a little more flexible and accelerate or delay some of the activities.